*from: Paradise Lost, Book I, (Lines 221-270) by John Milton – (1608-1674).
Above: line drawing of “Jacob’s Ladder” by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld. His “Picture Bible” was published in Leipzig in 30 parts in 1852–60, and an English edition followed in 1861.
From: SPLITTING OF THE MIND AND UNCONSCIOUS DYNAMICS, by Terezie Jiraskova, in Activitas Nervosa Superior (2014):
“…Developmental concept of splitting was elaborated in details by Melanie Klein (1940, 1950, 1952), who proposed that children adopt splitting as one of the several psychic defense mechanisms to protect their ego against anxiety. The splitting is mainly directed to maintain basic separation between gratifying good objects and frustrating bad objects and according to Klein, children learn this mechanism during first three or four months of their life (Klein, 1940, 1950). When later a child becomes aware that its mother includes both good and bad qualities in one, children ego will become much more integrated, but it is still in the conflict between opposed drives, which may be resolved by a mechanism of repression (Klein 1940, 1950). In general, splitting can either have positive or negative influence on the child’s personal growth. In a positive way, splitting enables to understand and accept positive and negative aspects of themselves and others, but excessive and rigid splitting may lead to pathological repression, and insufficiency to recognize “good me” and “bad me”, which represents a typical manifestation of the pathological repression (Klein, 1940, 1950)…”
“The first “object” in someone is usually an internalized image of one’s mother. Internal objects are formed by the patterns in one’s experience of being taken care of as a baby, which may or may not be accurate representations of the actual, external caretakers. Objects are usually internalized images of one’s mother, father, or primary caregiver, although they could also consist of parts of a person such as an infant relating to the breast or things in one’s inner world (one’s internalized image of others). Later experiences can reshape these early patterns, but objects often continue to exert a strong influence throughout life. Objects are initially comprehended in the infant mind by their functions and are termed part objects. The breast that feeds the hungry infant is the “good breast”, while a hungry infant that finds no breast is in relation to the “bad breast”. With a “good enough” facilitating environment, part object functions eventually transform into a comprehension of whole objects. This corresponds with the ability to tolerate ambiguity, to see that both the “good” and the “bad” breast are a part of the same mother figure.” “.