*Fernando Pessoa (1888-1935), Portuguese poet.
Image: (Wikipedia): “Swarthmoor Hall is a mansion in Swarthmoor, in the Furness area of Cumbria in North West England. Furness was formerly in Lancashire. It was the home of Thomas and Margaret Fell, the latter an important player in the founding of the Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) movement in the 17th century.”
Penny Wallington, Alumni Relations Manager at Leighton Park School, noticed my post https://londonpsychotherapy.blog/2020/06/10/leighton-park-school/
John Allinson, Archivist at the School, added: “George Cadbury Jr was one of our first pupils in the 1890s, and George Cadbury Sr was a significant benefactor. Actually, George Jr was, too!”
And now I have noticed an item by Penny herself:
“J. S. Fry & Sons, Ltd. better known as Fry’s, was a British chocolate company owned by Joseph Storrs Fry and his family. Beginning in Bristol in the 18th century, the business went through several changes of name and ownership, becoming J. S. Fry & Sons in 1822. In 1847, Fry’s produced the first solid chocolate bar. The company also created the first filled chocolate sweet, Cream Sticks, in 1853. Fry is most famous for Fry’s Chocolate Cream, the first mass-produced chocolate bar, which was launched in 1866, and Fry’s Turkish Delight, launched in 1914.
Fry, alongside Cadbury and Rowntree’s, were the big three British confectionery manufacturers throughout much of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and all three companies were founded by Quakers. The company became a division of Cadbury in the early twentieth century. The division’s Somerdale Factory near Bristol was closed after the 2010 takeover of Cadbury’s by Kraft Foods.
Joseph Fry, a Quaker, was born in 1728. He started making chocolate around 1759. In 1761 Joseph Fry and John Vaughan purchased a small shop from an apothecary, Walter Churchman, and with it the patent for a chocolate refining process. The company was then named Fry, Vaughan & Co.. In 1777 their chocolate works moved from Newgate Street to Union Street, Bristol. Joseph Fry died in 1787 and the company was renamed Anna Fry & Son. In 1795 Joseph Storrs Fry assumed control of the company. He patented a method of grinding cocoa beans using a Watt steam engine. As a result, factory techniques were introduced into the cocoa business. In 1803 Anna Fry died and Joseph Storrs Fry partnered with a Dr. Hunt. The business was renamed Fry & Hunt. In 1822 Hunt retired and Joseph Storrs Fry took on his sons Joseph, Francis and Richard as partners: the firm was renamed J. S. Fry & Sons. The company became the largest commercial producer of chocolate in the UK. In 1835 Joseph Storrs Fry died and his sons took full control.
In 1847, the Fry’s chocolate factory, located in Union Street, Bristol, moulded a chocolate bar suitable for large-scale production. The firm began producing the Fry’s Chocolate Cream bar in 1866. Over 220 products were introduced in the following decades, including production of the first chocolate Easter egg in UK in 1873 and the Fry’s Turkish Delight (or Fry’s Turkish bar) in 1914. In 1896 the firm became a registered private company. It was run by the Fry family, with Joseph Storrs Fry II, grandson of the first Joseph Storrs Fry, as the chairman.
In 1881, an employee of Fry’s, H. J. Packer, established his own chocolate business in Bristol. At its eventual home in Greenbank, Bristol, Packer’s Chocolate continued to provide local competition for Fry’s until 2006, under various owners and brands, from Bonds through to Famous Names and Elizabeth Shaw.
Near the start of World War I the company was one of the largest employers in Bristol. Joseph Storrs Fry II died in 1913. In 1919 the company merged with Cadbury’s chocolate and the joint company named British Cocoa and Chocolate Company. Under Egbert Cadbury the Fry’s division began the move to Somerdale, Keynsham, in 1923. After 1981 the name Fry’s was no longer in use at Somerdale, but the factory was still a major producer of Cadbury’s products.
The original enamel advertising sign with the distinctive “five boys” trademark (expressing “Desperation, Pacification, Expectation, Acclamation and Realization “It’s Fry’s”) featured in the design a boy, Lindsay Poulton. He had been photographed in 1886 by his father who, for the first image, soaked a cloth in ammonia and wrapped it round the boy’s neck to make him cry. Poulton, in his eighties, related this story to Fry’s employees when he was given a tour of the Bristol factory.”