Mens sana in corpore sano*

*(Wikipedia): “Latin phrase, from Satire X of the Roman poet Juvenal, usually translated as “a healthy mind in a healthy body”. The phrase is widely used in sporting and educational contexts to express the theory that physical exercise is an important or essential part of mental and psychological well-being.”

From Online Etymology Dictionary:

insane (adj.)

1550s, of persons, “mentally damaged,” from Latin insanus “mad, insane, of unsound mind; outrageous, excessive, extravagant,” from in– “not” (see in- (1)) + sanus “well, healthy, sane” (see sane). In reference to actions, “irrational, evidencing madness,” from 1842 in English. The noun meaning “insane person” is attested from 1786. For the notion of insanity as sickness, compare lunatic; and Italian pazzo “insane,” originally a euphemism, from Latin patiens “suffering.” German verrückt, literally past participle of verrücken “to displace,” “applied to the brain as to a clock that is ‘out of order’ ” [Buck].

From http://www.emergenceplus.org.uk (July 2014):

“THE TERM ‘PERSONALITY DISORDER’ HAS BEEN CRITICISED FOR THE FOLLOWING:

• There is no clear cut-off between someone who has an unusual or troublesome personality, and someone with a ‘disorder’.

• Individuals labelled as having a ‘personality disorder’ might feel that this marks them out in a way that is stigmatising or unhelpful.”

From Wikipedia:

“…Personality disorder is a term with a distinctly modern meaning, owing in part to its clinical usage and the institutional character of modern psychiatry. The currently accepted meaning must be understood in the context of historical changing classification systems such as DSM-IV and its predecessors. Although highly anachronistic, and ignoring radical differences in the character of subjectivity and social relations, some have suggested similarities to other concepts going back to at least the ancient Greeks. For example, the Greek philosopher Theophrastus described 29 ‘character’ types that he saw as deviations from the norm, and similar views have been found in Asian, Arabic and Celtic cultures. A long-standing influence in the Western world was Galen’s concept of personality types, which he linked to the four humours proposed by Hippocrates.

Such views lasted into the eighteenth century, when experiments began to question the supposed biologically based humours and ‘temperaments’. Psychological concepts of character and ‘self’ became widespread. In the nineteenth century, ‘personality’ referred to a person’s conscious awareness of their behavior, a disorder of which could be linked to altered states such as dissociation. This sense of the term has been compared to the use of the term ‘multiple personality disorder’ in the first versions of the DSM.

Physicians in the early nineteenth century started to diagnose forms of insanity involving disturbed emotions and behaviors but seemingly without significant intellectual impairment or delusions or hallucinations. Philippe Pinel referred to this as ‘manie sans délire‘– mania without delusions – and described a number of cases mainly involving excessive or inexplicable anger or rage. James Cowles Prichard advanced a similar concept he called moral insanity, which would be used to diagnose patients for some decades. ‘Moral’ in this sense referred to affect (emotion or mood) rather than ethics, but it was arguably based in part on religious, social and moral beliefs, with a pessimism about medical intervention so social control should take precedence. These categories were much different and broader than later definitions of personality disorder, while also being developed by some into a more specific meaning of moral degeneracy akin to later ideas about ‘psychopaths’. Separately, Richard von Krafft-Ebing popularized the terms sadism and masochism, as well as homosexuality, as psychiatric issues.

The German psychiatrist Koch sought to make the moral insanity concept more scientific, and in 1891 suggested the phrase ‘psychopathic inferiority’, theorized to be a congenital disorder. This referred to continual and rigid patterns of misconduct or dysfunction in the absence of apparent mental retardation or illness, supposedly without a moral judgment. Described as deeply rooted in his Christian faith, his work established the concept of personality disorder as used today…”

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