“A really well-made buttonhole is the only link between Art and Nature.”*

*Oscar Wilde

From Wikipedia:

“A boutonnière or Buttonhole is a floral decoration, typically a single flower or bud, worn on the lapel of a tuxedo or suit jacket.

While worn frequently in the past, boutonnières are now usually reserved for special occasions for which formal wear is standard, such as at proms, homecomings “tradition of welcoming back former students and members and celebrating an organization’s existence. It is a tradition in many high schools, colleges, and churches in the United States and to a lesser extent in Canada.”, funerals, and weddings. (Women who wear jackets on these occasions also often may wear “buttonholes”, but more typically a woman would wear a corsage. “The word corsage comes from the French term bouquet de corsage, meaning a bouquet of flowers worn on upper part of the body (“corsage” meaning girdle, bodice in French), which was traditionally worn by women to weddings and funerals.“…

Traditionally, a boutonnière was worn pushed through the lapel buttonhole (on the left, the same side as a pocket handkerchief) and the stem is held in place with a loop at the back of the lapel. The flower’s calyx, if pronounced such as those of a carnation, should be fully inserted into the buttonhole which would secure it tightly and flat against the lapel. Thus the buttonhole should ideally be at least 1⅛” long for there to be enough room to fit a standard sized flower’s calyx. Otherwise, the calyx would not fit into the buttonhole and the flower head would hang freely and move about in the wind…

The word Boutonniere derives from the french word; “Buttonhole Flower.” Similar to a wedding bouquet, in the 16th century, boutonnieres were used to ward off bad luck and evil spirits. With multiple purposes, it was also used to keep bad scents away and believed to protect against diseases.

In the 18th century however, many wore boutonnieres as fashion statements. They were put on the buttonholes of frock coats. In most parts of Europe during this time, it was normal for men to wear fashionable clothes which included not only the boutonniere, but breeches and boots. The French soon began to incorporate this style as well.

In the 19th Century, they became part of the Romantic Movement, along with adding fresh color to attire. This was one of the many accessories that a man could add to his clothing similar to picking a pair of well polished shoes. Other accessories were chains, cigar cases, and jeweled pins.

In the 20th century, after World War I and II, the act of wearing a flower on the lapel was still alive…This was due partly to the influence of the cinema…

The flower itself is often a carnation, of which the most formal is white. The classic alternative is one in clove red. Other colours and flowers may also be chosen to better coordinate with whatever else is being worn, such as a blue cornflower. A white gardenia is sometimes seen as a superior alternative to carnations given its scent…

At the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom it is tradition that students wear a carnation boutonnière while attending their formal examinations. This boutonnière is worn on the lapel of the student’s sub-fusc (Merriem-Webster): “Latin subfuscus brownish, dusky, from sub- + fuscus dark brown“, the style of formal academic dress at the University, but is not a compulsory part of the dress. The colour of the carnation indicates which examination the student is taking in that run of exams. At their first examination a white carnation is worn, at subsequent intermediate examination(s) a pink carnation is worn, and at their final examination a red carnation is worn.”

Four Flowering Plants That Have Been Decidedly Queered

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