“Friendship! Mysterious cement of the soul,/Sweet’ner of life, and solder of society.”*

*(Wikipedia): “Robert Blair (17 April 1699 – 4 February 1746) was a Scottish poet. His fame rests upon his poem The Grave, which, in a later printing was illustrated by William Blake.”

From Online Etymology Dictionary:

cement (n.)
kind of mortar or other substance that hardens as it dries, used to bind, c. 1300, from Old French ciment “cement, mortar, pitch,” from Latin cæmenta “stone chips used for making mortar” (singular caementum), from caedere “to cut down, chop, beat, hew, fell, slay” (from PIE root *kae-id- “to strike”). The sense evolution from “small broken stones” to “powdered stones used in construction” took place before the word reached English. Cement-mixer is from 1875.
The term properly includes papier maché, gums, glues, mucilages, limes, mortars, and a great number of compounds of such nature as to admit of their assuming, under certain conditions, sticky, tenacious, or stone-like consistency. [Century Dictionary]”

From Wikipedia:

“Portland cement, the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-speciality grout, was developed in England in the mid 19th century, and usually originates from limestone. James Frost produced what he called “British cement” in a similar manner around the same time, but did not obtain a patent until 1822. In 1824, Joseph Aspdin patented a similar material, which he called Portland cement, because the render made from it was in color similar to the prestigious Portland stone quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset, England. However, Aspdins’ cement was nothing like modern Portland cement but was a first step in its development, called a proto-Portland cement. Joseph Aspdins’ son William Aspdin had left his father’s company and in his cement manufacturing apparently accidentally produced calcium silicates in the 1840s, a middle step in the development of Portland cement. William Aspdin’s innovation was counterintuitive for manufacturers of “artificial cements”, because they required more lime in the mix (a problem for his father), a much higher kiln temperature (and therefore more fuel), and the resulting clinker was very hard and rapidly wore down the millstones, which were the only available grinding technology of the time. Manufacturing costs were therefore considerably higher, but the product set reasonably slowly and developed strength quickly, thus opening up a market for use in concrete. The use of concrete in construction grew rapidly from 1850 onward, and was soon the dominant use for cements. Thus Portland cement began its predominant role. Isaac Charles Johnson further refined the production of meso-Portland cement (middle stage of development) and claimed he was the real father of Portland cement.”

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