Enclaves and Exclaves

Image: (Wikipedia) “Fort Libéria is situated in Villefranche-de-Conflent in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in France, at the point where three valleys (the Têt, the Rotja, and the Cady) meet.”

From Wikipedia:

“St. Martin’s Le Grand is a former liberty within the City of London…To the east of the road in medieval times stood a college of secular canons of ancient origin, with a collegiate church dedicated to St Martin of Tours. The institution was situated in the City of London parish of St Leonard, Foster Lane.

The college was taken over by Westminster Abbey in 1503 as part of the endowment granted for the upkeep of the Henry VII Chapel. This was an arrangement allowing the abbey to appropriate the college’s revenues, and did not make the latter a monastery.

As the property of a monastery, the college was dissolved by King Henry VIII and demolished for redevelopment in 1548. However, the link with Westminster Abbey meant that the precinct was subsequently regarded as part of the borough of Westminster, and as a liberty: a district outside the jurisdiction of the legal officers of the City of London. The inhabitants voted in the Westminster borough elections up to the Reform Act 1832, and the liberty was regarded as an exclave of Middlesex.This was despite an Act of Parliament of 1815 annexing the liberty to the Aldersgate Ward of the City of London when the site was earmarked for a new General Post Office…”

The Travelling Tyke wrote on tripadvisor.co.uk:

“So, mountains aside……..and returning to your original post.

Llivia is a fairly flat parcel of Spanish land inside France, that’s about it.

Villefranche is about 2 hrs from Pezenas which gives an opportunity to detour to other places on the way such as Carcassonne citadel for most of the time and possibly Mirepoix central square for afternoon coffe.

Villefranche is a fortified town where 2 valleys meet and is surrounded by mountains. There are a number of options here.

The very scenic narrowgauge Little Yellow Train climbs into the mountains. The Grottes du Canalette cave system has a sound and light show at the furthest point. You can walk up the long and steep underground stairway to Fort Liberia, perched high above the town (or ride or drive there).”

From encyclopedia.com:

“Enclaves and exclaves are discontiguous (consisting of non-adjacent parts) territories of states which are located within the territory of other states. Seen from the state within which the outlier is located, it is an enclave; seen from the state to which the outlier belongs, it is an exclave. A typical example is the Spanish town of Llivia in the eastern Pyrenees of France: this is an exclave of Spain, entirely surrounded by French territory and located about four miles from the main Spanish territory; it is also a Spanish enclave within French territory.

Origin of the terms . Use of the terms originated during the late Middle Ages. The first diplomatic document to contain the word “enclave” was the Treaty of Madrid, signed in 1526. Since then the terms have also been used outside political geography; parks, for example, have been described as rural enclaves within cities. Similarly, areas of low prices located within higher price regions, for example, areas along major highways within a high price region where low gasoline prices are posted, are described as low-price enclaves.

Theories of origin . Most settlements were virtually self-sufficient before the advent of modern transportation, and generally only goods of high value and little bulk were exchanged over distances of more than a few miles. Because of high costs of transportation, most settlements and their environs were surrounded by undeveloped lands separating them from neighboring settlements (Thünen 1826-1863). In the feudal era each of these settlements became dominated by a local ruler who, by war, marriage, or purchase, tried to enlarge his territories. Messengers and the small armies of the era could move through the undeveloped lands between the settlements, and since there was also little trade, there was no need for feudal territories to be contiguous. Thus the pattern of enclaves which is so characteristic of this period gradually evolved. Territorial discontiguity was found not only at the lowest but also at the highest level of the feudal hierarchy. Even self-governing cities contained both enclaves and exclaves. Territorial discontiguity was most marked in Germany but also existed in much more centralized Great Britain, where a few enclaves survive to this day among county areas, for example, in Flintshire.”

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