“Every moderate drinker could abandon the intoxicating cup if he would; every inebriate would if he could.”*

*from: Temperance, by JOHN BARTHOLOMEW GOUGH, American (English-born) temperance lecturer (1817 – 1886).

Image: (Wikipedia) “Temperance (XIV) is the fourteenth trump or Major Arcana card in most traditional Tarot decks. Temperance is almost invariably depicted as a person pouring liquid from one receptacle into another. Historically, this was a standard symbol of the virtue temperance, one of the cardinal virtues, representing the dilution of wine with water. A woman mixing water into wine was a standard allegory of Temperance in European iconography.

In many decks, the person is a winged angel, usually female or androgynous, and stands with one foot on water and one foot on land.
At the end of the path in the lower left part of the card, there is a crown to show the attainment of a goal, or mastery thereof.
In the Rider-Waite image by Pamela Colman-Smith (shown) the Hebrew Tetragrammaton is on the angel’s chest above the square and triangle.”

From: Temperance Periodicals, by ANNEMARIE MCALLISTER, a cultural historian at the University of Central Lancashire:

“…Just as most villages by 1900 could boast a temperance hall and most towns also had one or more temperance hotels and coffee shops, most districts would have published temperance periodicals. The longest-running regional title was the Bristol Temperance Herald (1836-59), becoming theWestern Temperance Herald (1859-1957), but the Norwich-based Temperance Monthly Visitor (1858-1920) and the Derby-based Temperance Bells (1890-1945) could also claim impressive longevity.The regional focus of both titles ensured that they could draw on local interest, but also a wide range of readership.Indeed, the Western Temperance Herald boasted ofcirculating nationally and internationally.

Many smaller, more local temperance periodicals lasted for a year or less although, as with national periodicals, those aimed at young people were often more successful at maintaining readership: the HullBand of Hope Advocate was based solely in Hull, yet ran from 1875 to1910 (having changed its name to the Hull Band of Hope Journal).The three main national organisations, all non-denominational, produced the most widely-circulated temperance publications. The long-running Alliance News and British Temperance Advocate have been mentioned above, but the London-based National Temperance League(1851until incorporation into the British National Temperance League in 1952) published a variety of titles such as theNational Temperance Chronicle (1848-56) followed by the Weekly Record of the Temperance Movement (1856-69) then the Temperance Record (1870-1907)…

*The Rechabites published a range of local periodicals, starting with theIsle of Man Guardian and Rechabite Journal (1836-8), but the Rechabite and Temperance Magazine (1870-1900) became the national publication.Similar societies such as the Sons of Temperance and Good Templars also used periodicals to communicate, inspireand create fellowship, with the latter, for example, publishing the Templar (1871-7), Templar and Templar Journal (1877-8), Templar Journal and Treasury (1879-80), as well asthe GoodTemplar’s Watchword (1874- 1965).

Temperance organisations in the Army and Navy, as well as occupational groups such as transport or health workers all produced their own periodicals, including those working in the many temperance hotels, coffee houses and temperance taverns.The Coffee Tavern Gazette and Journal of Food Thrift (1886-7) became the Temperance Caterer which provided advice, support and a particularly specialised advertising platform from 1887-1923. Religious denominations also felt the need to supply the market for temperance publications, and there are periodicals published by non-conformist groups such as Methodists, Baptists and Congregationalists, with the Methodist Temperance Magazine (1868-1906) as a lively and long-lived example. The Church of England Temperance Society had originally, in its earlier completely teetotal incarnation, produced the Church of England Temperance Magazine (1862-72), but with the revised adoption of“dual form membership” (teetotal or moderationist) the official organ became the Church of England Temperance Chronicle (1873-88;later the Temperance Chronicle, 1888-1914).This was one of the most influential temperance publications: Brian Harrison ranks it with the British Temperance Advocate and the Alliance News.

As alcohol was often used in medical treatment, it was considered particularly important to influence medical professionals. Hence at an early stage journals appeared arguing for the pernicious effects upon the body of alcohol, such as the Temperance Lancet (1841-2).The National Temperance League published the quarterly Medical Temperance Journal (1869-92), the Medical Pioneer (1892-7) and the Medical Temperance Review (1898- 1907). With the establishment of the British Medical Temperance Association in 1876 such journals proliferated, with some featuring academic papers, such as the quarterly British Journal of Inebriety (1903-1946).Similarly, Meliora (1858-69) a quarterly journal of social science published by the Alliance, aimed to provide a platform for academic and policy debates on various social amelioration projects, including temperance…”

*(Wikipedia): “In the Bible, the Rechabites belonged to the Kenites, who accompanied the Israelites into the Holy Land and dwelt among them. The main body of the Kenites dwelt in cities and adopted settled habits of life but Jehonadab forbade his descendants to drink wine or to live in cities. They were commanded to always lead a nomadic life. In more recent times, the name has been used by Christian groups keen to promote total abstinence from alcohol, such as the Independent Order of Rechabites.”

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