Glass ceiling, glass cliff

JULIA KAGAN wrote for Investopedia on Apr 19, 2021:

“Marilyn Loden first coined the phrase “glass ceiling” while speaking as a panelist at the 1978 Women’s Exposition in New York. As a fill-in for her employer’s only female executive, Loden was invited to discuss how women were to blame for the barriers preventing them from advancing in their careers. Instead, she spoke about deeper, ignored issues that historically kept women from occupying positions of authority: the glass ceiling.

The glass ceiling concept was later popularized in a 1986 Wall Street Journal article discussing the corporate hierarchy and how invisible barriers seemed to be preventing women from advancing in their careers past a certain level. In 2015, The Wall Street Journal itself reported (quoting Gay Bryant, former editor of Working Woman magazine) that the concept goes back to the 1970s and may have originated with two women at Hewlett-Packard.

In more recent years, the analysis of the glass ceiling has expanded to include issues preventing not only women from moving up but also minorities.

The equality gap varies from country to country, and in some cases, it is driven by cultural stances against women participating in the workforce. In the United States, companies have responded to the equality gap by focusing on measures to increase diversity. This has included hiring personnel specifically tasked with ensuring that women and minorities see improved representation in management-level positions. By focusing on policies that reduce or eliminate the glass ceiling, companies can ensure that the most qualified candidates hold decision-making positions.

At the end of 2020, women accounted for 55.9% of the labor force in the U.S. But when it came to chief executive positions, women held only 29.9% of these roles, and 88% of chief executives identified as white, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Research has shown that diverse groups are more successful in making decisions than homogeneous ones, which has the effect of signaling to companies that eliminating the glass ceiling can positively affect their bottom line.


In response to the growing concern over barriers preventing women and minorities from advancing, the U.S. Department of Labor launched the Glass Ceiling Commission in 1991. It was charged with identifying the types of barriers that exist and policies that companies had undertaken or could undertake to increase diversity at managerial and executive levels.

The commission found that qualified women and minorities were being denied the opportunity to compete for or win decision-making positions. It also found that the perceptions of both employees and employers often included stereotypes that held women and minorities in a negative light.


The number of female chief executive officers leading Fortune 500 companies in 2020—the highest number ever—but still only 7.4% of the total list.
When Hillary Clinton ran for president in 2008 and 2016, she repeatedly spoke of her goal of shattering the “highest, hardest glass ceiling” by becoming America’s first female president. Vice President Kamala Harris shattered the second-highest glass ceiling in the U.S. when she became the first female and first Black vice president on January 20, 2021. She was also the first woman and first Black and South Asian attorney general of California, as well as the first Black woman to be elected district attorney of San Francisco.

Janet Yellen became the first female Treasury secretary after being nominated by President Biden and sworn in on Jan. 26, 2021. This isn’t the first glass ceiling Yellen has broken either. She also served as the first woman to head the Federal Reserve, a role she held during President Barack Obama’s administration.


The glass cliff is a closely related term, but refers to a phenomenon wherein women tend to be promoted to positions of power during times of crises, when failure is more likely. This could occur in fields as diverse as finance, politics, technology, and academia.

While the more common glass ceiling presents a barrier to reaching the highest executive levels within their respective organizations, the glass cliff addresses the tendency to place women who have broken through that glass ceiling into precarious positions, making it likely their performance will falter, as if they are at risk of falling off a cliff.

Had Hillary Clinton won the presidential election in 2008, at the height of the Great Recession, she might have been seen as the victim of the “glass cliff.” The term was coined by professors Michelle K. Ryan and Alexander Haslam of the University of Exeter, United Kingdom, in 2004. Ryan and Haslam documented this phenomenon extensively in a study of Great Britain’s FTSE 100 companies.”

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