Budding technology

Image: South Downs, West Sussex

From: An Economic History of the English Garden (2019), by Roderick Floud:

“The landscapes of (Lancelot) Brown and his contemporaries and successors relied for their effects on large areas of park meadow and grassland. These were usually separated from the lawns in pleasure gardens and near the house by the Ha-Ha, a ditch with one sloping and one perpendicular side that animals cannot climb; it gives the illusion that sheep or cattle are grazing on a stretch of lawn sweeping up to the house. Animals could therefore keep the park meadows cropped, but the garden lawns were a different matter and gardeners must have welcomed the invention, by Edwin Budding in 1830, of the first lawnmower, although like many new technologies, it still took many years to come into general use.”

From the Historic England entry:

The Ha Ha, Ha-Ha Road and Charlton Park Lane SE 18 (north side)

Early C19. Hollow stretches across the common from east to west. Southern bank sloped, north bank vertical and retained by stock brick wall. Stretches from south-east corner of Charlton Cemetery in the west to Woolwich New Road in the east, South-east angle of married quarters to Woolwich Common, with two breaks for roads to cross it.”

Isabella Caroline Somers-Cocks

Image: Lady Henry Somersets Children’s Fountain (1897), Temple Garden, WC2. Jacqueline Banerjee: “The sculpture crowns a drinking fountain, while…the girl is offering a bowl of her own, sometimes described as a birdbath. It is a charming piece…that chimes with the New Sculpture of the time. The statue has had to be replaced since vandals sawed it off at the feet in 1970; its replacement is surely a tribute to the sculptor as well as to Lady Somerset herself.” George Edward Wade (1853-1933); replica of 1991 by Philomena Davidson Davis (London 1949).

From the website of the White Ribbon Association:

“Lady Henry Somerset was born Isabella Caroline Somers-Cocks, the daughter of Charles Somers-Cocks and his wife Virginia. She married Lord Henry Somerset in 1872, however, the marriage ended disastrously and Lady Henry won custody of their only son – an act which was almost unheard of for a woman at the time. Her family owned several estates across England, including Eastnor Castle in Herefordshire.

She became the President of the British Women’s Temperance Association (B.W.T.A) in 1889 but was an advocate of moderation rather than abstinence. Lady Henry Somerset had a huge influence within the B.W.T.A. She arranged for a temperance exhibition at Eastnor Castle and another in Toxteth, Liverpool, which attracted over 50,000 people. By 1891 the number of B.W.T.A branches had risen to 263, and the annual income increased to £1,150 (over £133,000 in today’s money).

She was close friends with Frances Willard, a temperance reformer from America. Frances came to stay with Lady Henry Somerset to recuperate from an illness, and they even learned to ride bicycles together! Frances advocated many social issues including children’s welfare, women’s suffrage and prison reform, which Lady Henry Somerset also supported. However, this divided the B.W.T.A, many of whom just wanted to focus on temperance matters, and in 1893 the Organisation split into two. Some members formed their own Organisation, the Women’s Total Abstinence Union (W.T.A.U), while the B.W.T.A became the National British Women’s Temperance Association (N.B.W.T.A).

In 1896 she established Duxhurst Farm Colony for Inebriate Women. The home was a type of rehabilitation for women from all social classes. The home was open as a rehabilitation centre for nearly twenty years, before being commandeered by the War Office during World War I.
Lady Henry Somerset resigned as President of the N.B.W.T.A in 1903. She died in London in 1921 following a short illness but insisted on a simple service at her local church instead of a burial in the family vaults at Eastnor Castle.”

From Wikipedia:

“…She was maternally a niece of the photographer Julia Margaret Cameron and first cousin of the writer Virginia Woolf’s mother, Julia Stephen. Lady Isabella married Lord Henry Somerset on 6 February 1872, and became known as Lady Henry Somerset. The match appeared to be perfect. Her husband was the second son of Henry Somerset, 8th Duke of Beaufort, and as such stood to inherit almost nothing, unlike her. On 18 May 1874, a son was born to the couple and named Henry Charles Somers Augustus. However, Lord Henry was homosexual, and the marriage was doomed to fail. Male homosexual acts were a criminal offence in the United Kingdom at the time, but women were expected to turn a blind eye to every kind of their husband’s infidelity. Lady Henry became interested in the temperance movement after her close friend committed suicide while intoxicated.”

The ethos of social prescribing

From the website of The King’s Fund:

This explainer was originally written by David Buck and published in February 2017. It was updated in November 2020 by Leo Ewbank.

Social prescribing, also sometimes known as community referral, is a means of enabling health professionals to refer people to a range of local, non-clinical services. The referrals generally, but not exclusively, come from professionals working in primary care settings, for example, GPs or practice nurses.

Recognising that people’s health and wellbeing are determined mostly by a range of social, economic and environmental factors, social prescribing seeks to address people’s needs in a holistic way. It also aims to support individuals to take greater control of their own health.

Schemes delivering social prescribing can involve a range of activities that are typically provided by voluntary and community sector organisations. Examples include volunteering, arts activities, group learning, gardening, befriending, cookery, healthy eating advice and a range of sports.

Social prescribing is designed to support people with a wide range of social, emotional or practical needs, and many schemes are focused on improving mental health and physical wellbeing. Those who could benefit from social prescribing schemes include people with mild or long-term mental health problems, people with complex needs, people who are socially isolated and those with multiple long-term conditions who frequently attend either primary or secondary health care.

There are different models of social prescribing being employed across England. Most involve a link worker (other terms such as community connector, navigator and health adviser are also used) who works with people to access local sources of support. For example, at the Bromley by Bow Centre, a community and primary care hub in east London with a long history of social prescribing and other community-focused work, staff work with people, often over several sessions, to help them get involved with local services ranging from swimming lessons to financial advice services.

Social prescribing can be understood as one of a family of approaches, sometimes called community-centred approaches, which aim to mobilise the power of communities to generate good health.
Does social prescribing work?

There is a growing body of evidence that social prescribing can lead to a range of positive health and wellbeing outcomes. Studies have pointed to improvements in quality of life and emotional wellbeing, mental and general wellbeing, and levels of depression and anxiety.

For example, an evaluation of a social prescribing project in Bristol from the early 2010s highlighted improvements in anxiety levels and in feelings about general health and quality of life. And a study of a scheme in Rotherham (a liaison service helping people access support from more than 20 voluntary and community sector organisations), showed that for more than 8 in 10 people referred to the scheme who were followed up 3 to 4 months later, there were reductions in NHS use in terms of accident and emergency (A&E) attendance, outpatient appointments and inpatient admissions. Exploratory analysis of the scheme suggested that it could pay for itself over 18–24 months due to reduced NHS use.

More recent evaluations have pointed to similar opportunities. A community connector scheme in Bradford reported improvements in service users’ health-related quality of life and social connectedness (among other measures). And a programme in Shropshire, evaluated between 2017 and 2019, found that people reported statistically significant improvements in measures of wellbeing, patient activation and loneliness. At three-month follow up, it also found that GP consultations among participants were down 40 per cent compared to a control group.

While experience – much of it positive – continues to accumulate about social prescribing, there remain weaknesses in the evidence base. Many studies are small scale, do not have a control group, focus on progress rather than outcomes, or relate to individual interventions rather than the social prescribing model. Much of the evidence available is qualitative and relies on self-reported outcomes.

Determining the cost, resource implications and cost-effectiveness of social prescribing is particularly difficult. Several studies highlight the importance of measuring the wider social value generated through social prescribing, for example, through reducing welfare benefit claims. Again, this can be difficult to measure, and may require a longer-term approach. A recent study found that more than half of the outcomes social prescribing can deliver are not being routinely measured in evaluation frameworks.

Overall, the evidence available today offers good reason to think social prescribing can deliver benefits for some people. But, as a number of recent meta-analyses and Public Health England have concluded, further work is needed to strengthen the evidence base and clarify expectations of what benefits can be delivered and for whom.
How does social prescribing fit in with wider health and care policy?

Social prescribing and similar approaches have been practised in the NHS for many years, with schemes dating back to the 1990s, and some even earlier (the Bromley by Bow Centre was established in 1984). For a long time, though, social prescribing was practised in pockets and largely unnoticed by national NHS bodies.

The past few years have seen an important change: national NHS bodies have embraced social prescribing and committed resource to rolling it out across England. The NHS five year forward view (2014) opened the door with its focus on prevention, its emphasis on the role of the voluntary and community sector, and by citing examples of social prescribing schemes having a positive impact. Subsequently, the General practice forward view (2016) noted the role voluntary and community sector organisations, and particularly social prescribing, can play alongside GP services in offering people community-based support.

The NHS long-term plan (2019) marked a step change in ambition by incorporating social prescribing into its comprehensive model of personalised care. Composed of six programmes including personalised care planning and personal health budgets, the model aims to enable people, particularly those with more complex needs, to take greater control of their health and care.

Rather than seeking to directly fund the groups that deliver social interventions, the Long-Term Plan commits funding to the link workers who connect people to the range of support and engagement opportunities – largely run by charity and voluntary organisations – in their local area. The Long-Term Plan set a target that by 2023/24 every GP practice in England will have access to a social prescribing link worker and 900,000 people will be referred by then.

Primary care networks (PCNs), groupings of GP surgeries serving populations of around 30–50,000 patients, are the channel for this resource and in many cases will host the link-worker service. In 2019, a new five-year contract framework for general practices came into effect, which allows every PCN with a population of 30,000 or more to be reimbursed the costs of employing a link worker (one full-time equivalent and more for PCNs with populations of more than 100,000). By autumn 2020 national NHS bodies were reporting that more than 1,200 link workers were in post.

Alongside funding link workers, national NHS bodies are seeking to grow the infrastructure that supports social prescribing. In 2019, the Department of Health and Social Care made £5 million available to establish a National Academy of Social Prescribing. The academy was officially formed as an independent charity in 2020, with support from a number of partner organisations, such as NHS England and NHS Improvement and Sport England; it plans to focus on raising the profile of social prescribing, building the evidence base and sharing promising practice. It also seeks to support voluntary organisations involved in social prescribing and explore funding partnerships.

Other government departments have shown a growing interest in the potential of non-clinical interventions in recent years. In 2018, the government’s strategy to tackle loneliness backed the roll-out of social prescribing, and in 2020 the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs announced funding for a two-year trial of ‘green social prescribing’ – initiatives intended to help people engage with the natural world.

National policy-makers backing community-centred approaches to health, including social prescribing, is welcome. Implementing social prescribing at scale will see more people benefit than has been possible in the past. However, its incorporation into the NHS’s national agenda also brings risks. It remains to be seen, for example, if the ethos of social prescribing will be changed by a more proximate relationship with NHS national policy-makers.

Looking ahead, it will be important that national roll-out of social prescribing is done in a way that pays careful attention to learning. For example, further insight is needed into the impact of different models of link working, and how link workers can be effectively supported and embedded within a wider multidisciplinary team. There is an opportunity to improve the quality of evaluation and develop a more granular understanding of which approaches from within the range of models deliver value, for whom, and how. National NHS bodies, and the National Academy of Social Prescribing, will have a key role to play in this.

Partnership between the NHS and the voluntary and community sector is integral to effective health and care; the national roll-out of social prescribing supports that. But its impact over the coming years will also depend on the scale and vitality of the voluntary and community sector, particularly small place-based charities. Covid-19 has seen the voluntary and community sector’s income fall, while the need for the sector has increased. The policy support for social prescribing must be accompanied by adequate funding for those organisations, primarily local charities, receiving social referrals if it is to be sustainable in the long term.”

Green prescribing

From nhsforest.org:

“To help the UK reduce future pressures on the NHS and recover from the Covid-19 pandemic, the government has announced a two-year green prescribing pilot which will be established at four rural and urban locations. The £4 million green prescribing strategy is led by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and will focus on areas hit the hardest by Covid-19. The government also announced plans to scale up the project to other locations.

Historically, green prescribing has referred to the use of physical activity as part of a patient’s health management plan (Green Prescriptions, 2016). More recently, green prescribing has referred to the use of nature-based activities for improving the physical and mental health of individuals (Robinson & Breed, 2019). This practice is part of social prescribing which allows healthcare providers to refer patients to local, non-clinical services (What Is Social Prescribing?, 2017) . Common activities used in green prescribing include walking and cycling in nature, conservation activities, horticulture and meditation (Robinson & Breed, 2019).

Greater access to green space is connected to better health and wellbeing. Doing activities in green spaces or simply spending time in nature is beneficial in different ways. For example, going for a walk at their local park can help patients manage their weight and prevent chronic non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and hypertension (Improving Access to Greenspace. A New Review for 2020, 2020). Green spaces also promote a sense of being connected to nature as well as encouraging social connections with others. These connections are good for our mental health and wellbeing, helping us experience lower levels of stress, fatigue and anxiety, among other benefits (Improving Access to Greenspace. A New Review for 2020, 2020).

Interacting with green spaces is particularly beneficial for vulnerable populations. Those with greater access to green space experience lower levels of health inequalities linked to income deprivation (Mitchell & Popham, 2008). Research also shows that equitable access to green spaces in England alone could save the National Health Services £2.1 billion every year (An Estimate of the Economic and Health Value and Cost Effectiveness of the Expanded WHI Scheme 2009, 2009).

Our recent experience with Covid-19 has demonstrated the need for greater access to green space – as these areas have been havens for communities during these hard times- as well as ensuring a more sustainable health system through a decrease in demand for services. Green prescribing can tackle both these issues.

New Zealand has been using green prescriptions for encouraging patients to be active outdoors for decades. The scheme is implemented at the primary care level where a physician or nurse generally assess the needs of patients and provide tangible recommendations in a prescription. A referral is also shared between the practice and regional sports trusts. Follow up work is carried out by these local trusts to facilitate and encourage patient access to activities (Hamlin et al., 2016). Research in the country shows that green prescribing is among the most cost-effective strategies for promoting healthy behaviours and physical activity (Garrett et al., 2011). Findings also show that patients taking part in green prescribing in New Zealand are more likely to meet current physical activity guidelines when compared to those not engaged in green prescribing (Hamlin et al., 2016).

The UK has taken a number of steps toward establishing better primary care services, including expanding the provision of social and green prescribing.

The NHS’ long term plan, establishes the health services’ priorities for the next 10 years. Among these priorities is the development of Integrated Care Systems (ICSs) in the UK. ICSs bring together the NHS itself and local organisations to improve the level of care and overall health of communities. A major aspect of improving community health is founded on the expansion of non-clinical services to the population, given the many physical and mental health benefits that these services can offer. By 2021 it is expected that the NHS will gain 1,000 new social prescribers within the country’s primary care networks, whose jobs entail facilitating patient access to green and social prescribing services. Under the current long-term plan, the aim is that 900,000 people will be able to access personalised care by 2023/24 with the help of social prescribers.

Other efforts such as walking and cycling pilots being rolled out by the Department of Transport also aim to strengthen the preventive care offers of the NHS. These pilots will help GPs prescribe cycling activities when recommended. It also facilitates access to activities by connecting patients to training services, cycling groups as well as available bicycles and ensuring patients have access to safe cycling routes in good quality green spaces.

More information is needed to understand in detail how the new green prescribing pilot being launched by DEFRA works in conjunction with other initiatives and the NHS’ long-term plan.”

Blue prescribing at London Wetland Centre, Barnes SW13

By the Press Association, 2021:

“A “blue prescribing” scheme has been launched to help hundreds of people improve their mental health through spending time in wetlands.

The scheme to allow up to 300 people to take part in a six-week nature-based health programme in London comes as a poll for the Mental Health Foundation shows two-thirds of people think being near water improves their wellbeing.

The initiative at the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust (WWT) London Wetland Centre in Barnes (the site is formed of four disused Victorian reservoirs tucked into a loop in the Thames) has been set up in response to growing evidence that being in nature can reduce stress, fatigue, anxiety and depression.

A survey for the Mental Health Foundation (MHF) by YouGov of more than 4,000 adults backs that up, with 65% of people saying they found being near the coast, rivers, lakes and ponds had a positive impact on their mental health.

The blue prescribing project will give people who are experiencing poor mental health and have limited access to water in natural settings the chance to take part in hands-on activities in a “watery” landscape to improve their mental and physical wellbeing.

It follows a pilot programme of a similar programme of similar design at WWT Slimbridge Wetland Centre in Gloucestershire, and its effects will be scientifically evaluated, the team behind the scheme said.

It will be co-designed between the WWT, the Mental Health Foundation and those taking part, with activities to build people’s health, knowledge and confidence in wetland nature and enable them to continue exploring nature independently to improve their long-term mental health.

Travel will be fully funded and there will be financial support to help people get online for a nature-based, mental-health, self-management course as part of the scheme, which is funded by SimplyHealth.

Dr Jonathan Reeves, from WWT, said: “The benefits of getting out in nature for our mental wellbeing has become well known during the pandemic, but those experiencing mental health problems, and those most at risk, still face greater barriers to accessing nature.

“They are more likely to live in urban areas with fewer natural spaces and less likely to have the means to travel to those spaces.

“The blue prescribing scheme at London Wetland Centre aims to enable greater access to ‘watery’ wetland nature to those that most need it.”

Jolie Goodman, from the MHF, said: “Many people in Britain get no support for their mental health from the NHS.

“Projects like blue prescribing which will start at the London Wetland Centre later this summer are a way for people to protect their own mental health and prevent them needing crisis support.”

Harry Wharton Ford, 1875 – 1947

From the website of the London Transport Museum:

“Born in Hampstead, Harry Ford was articled to F W Hunt prior to becoming assistant to Messrs Aldwinckle, Bressey and Dighton Pearson.
He was appointed Architect to the District Railway in 1900. Although he resigned from this post in 1911, he continued to work for the company for a further 5 years whilst in private practice. He spent a short period working for the Admiralty in WW1, when he drew-up the plans for the conversion of Ditton Park at Datchet into the Admiralty Compass Observatory then returned to private practice, acting as surveyor for the United Synagogue for many years. He retired in 1945, and died two years later.Ford’s impact on London’s railway architecture was considerable. He was responsible for new District Railway stations such as Barons Court (1906), and rebuilt others when electric traction was introduced in the early 20th century. His stations characteristically featured the use of brown terracotta facing, though sometimes employed Portland stone instead. Other surviving Ford stations include Temple, Embankment, the Earl’s Court Road frontage at Earl’s Court, and Fulham Broadway. Ford also claimed the credit for designing both the familiar Underground bullseye (or roundel) nameboard (1908), and the ‘UndergrounD’ style of lettering, which swiftly established itself as a trading name for the Underground Group (of which the District Railway was a constituent) following its introduction in 1909. Other writers have disputed Ford’s claims, although they concede that, because of his position, he was likely to have had some input into design matters.”

Major Sir William Palliser

Image: (Wikipedia) “Waterford, a seaport in southeast Ireland, is the country’s oldest city. It was founded by Vikings in 914 A.D. and parts of its ancient walled core remain.

From Wikipedia:

“Major Sir William Palliser CB MP (18 June 1830 – 4 February 1882) was an Irish-born politician and inventor, Member of Parliament for Taunton from 1880 until his death.

Born in Dublin on 18 June 1830, Palliser was the fourth of the eight sons of Lieutenant Colonel Wray Bury Palliser (1788–1862), of Derryluskan, County Tipperary, by his marriage to Anne Gledstanes, a daughter of John Gledstanes of Annesgift, County Tipperary. After Rugby School, he was educated first at Trinity College, Dublin, to which he was admitted in 1849, and next at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he matriculated in 1851. He later attended the Staff College at Sandhurst.
He was a brother of Captain John Palliser, a geographer and explorer.

Palliser was admitted a member of the Inner Temple in Jan 1854. In 1854, he was granted a patent for the invention of “improvements in projectiles for fire-arms and ordnance generally”. He was then described as “William Palliser, of Comeragh in the county of Waterford, Esquire”.
In April 1855 Palliser was commissioned as an ensign into the Rifle Brigade. He was promoted lieutenant on 1 August 1855 and in 1857 was appointed an Instructor of Musketry. He saw active service in the Crimean War after the fall of Sevastopol. He was transferred with the rank of Lieutenant to the 18th Light Dragoons in 1858, promoted captain in 1859 and major in 1864, before retiring from the regular British Army in 1871, after seven years on half-pay.
In 1870, he was one of two directors of The Land and Sea Telegraph Construction Company Ltd. as it applied to be wound up, the other being Augustus Anson VC MP. Palliser was then “of No. 126 Belgrave-road, Pimlico.”
Palliser patented 21 ordnance-related inventions, including the armour-piercing Palliser shot. He designed the “Palliser conversion” technique which was used successfully to convert many of Britain’s obsolescent but still serviceable smoothbore muzzle-loading guns into more modern rifled muzzle-loaders (“RML”) in the late 1860s and the 1870s.
In 1868 he was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath and in 1873 was knighted by Queen Victoria at Osborne House.
In 1875, he became a lieutenant colonel in the 2nd Middlesex Artillery Volunteers.
Palliser was a Conservative Member of Parliament for Taunton, in Somerset, from 1880 until his death.
He developed land in North End, Fulham in London, part of which was sold after his death and became the Queen’s Club in West Kensington.

In November 1868, Palliser married Hanna Maria Perham (1843–1923), eldest daughter of George Perham. In 1880 he was living in Earl’s Court Square, Kensington. He died in 1882 of heart disease and was survived by his wife and four children. He is buried in Brompton Cemetery, London.”

Barons Court Underground Station

From Wikipedia:

“The name Barons Court is possibly inspired by the Baronscourt estate in Co Tyrone, Northern Ireland, where Sir William Palliser, who built part of the area, may have had connections. Unlike Earl’s Court station, Barons Court is written without an apostrophe.”

From the Historic England entry:

“Barons Court Underground Station was built in 1904 and opened in 1905 to serve the Metropolitan District Railway (MDR). It was built on existing track laid out in 1874 when the line was extended from Earl’s Court to Hammersmith. At that time the area was still agricultural land, but by the end of the century it had been developed with housing. The name Baron’s Court may have been devised by Sir William Palliser, who owned and developed the land in this area. In 1901 the near-bankrupt MDR was acquired by the American transport entrepreneur, Charles Tyson Yerkes, becoming a subsidiary of Yerkes’s Underground Electric Railways Co of London Ltd (UERL). Under the UERL the planned programme of electrification of the District Line was implemented. Barons Court Station also served the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway, also part of the UERL, which opened in 1906 and was soon known as the Piccadilly Line. In 1931 the stairways and platform canopies were rebuilt, and the platforms extended.

Harry Wharton Ford (1875-1947) was architect to the District Railway from 1900-11. He designed a number of stations for the District Railway, including Earl’s Court and Fulham Broadway, both listed Grade II.

The platform canopies were rebuilt in 1931; the corrugated iron roof cladding is modern. The platforms are notable principally for the series of original back-to-back wooden benches bearing the station name, and free-standing timber sign and poster boards. The enamelled metal signs probably date from the 1920s.”

Turnham Green Station

From Wikipedia:

“Turnham Green is a London Underground station in Chiswick of the London Borough of Hounslow, west London. The station is served by the District and Piccadilly lines although currently Piccadilly line trains normally stop at the station only at the beginning and end of the day, running through non-stop at other times. To the east, District line trains stop at Stamford Brook and Piccadilly line trains stop at Hammersmith. To the west, District line trains run to either Chiswick Park or Gunnersbury and Piccadilly line trains stop at Acton Town. The station is in both Travelcard Zone 2 and Zone 3.
The station is located on Turnham Green Terrace (B491) on the eastern edge of Chiswick Common. It is about 200 m (220 yd) north of Chiswick High Road (A315), and as well as Central Chiswick the station serves the Bedford Park area. The actual Turnham Green park is much closer to Chiswick Park station.

The station is located close to the site of the Battle of Turnham Green (1642), during the First English Civil War.

Turnham Green station was opened on 1 January 1869 by the London and South Western Railway (L&SWR) on a new branch line to Richmond built from the West London Joint Railway starting north of Addison Road station (now Kensington (Olympia)). The line ran through Shepherd’s Bush and Hammersmith via a now unused curve and initially the next station towards central London was Grove Road station in Hammersmith (also now closed).

On 5 May 1878 The Midland Railway began running a circuitous service known as the Super Outer Circle from St Pancras to Earl’s Court via Cricklewood and South Acton. It operated over a now disused connection between the North London Railway and the L&SWR Richmond branch. The service was not a success and was ended on 30 September 1880.

In 1913, the Central London Railway (now the Central line) obtained parliamentary approval for an extension to Richmond. This would have had a deep-level station at Turnham Green. The stations each side would have been at Heathfield Terrace and Emlyn Road. The plan was delayed by the First World War and an alternative route was adopted in 1920, which was not progressed.

In the early 1930s, the London Electric Railway, precursor of the London Underground and owner of the District and Piccadilly lines, began the reconstruction of the tracks between Hammersmith and Acton Town to enable the Piccadilly line to be extended from Hammersmith to Uxbridge and Hounslow West (then the terminus of what is now the Heathrow branch). Express non-stop tracks were provided for the Piccadilly line between the stopping lines of the District line. Services on the Piccadilly line began running through Turnham Green on 4 July 1932.
To provide a better interchange with the Richmond branch of the District line, Piccadilly line trains began stopping at Turnham Green station in the early mornings (from the first train until 06:50 Monday to Saturday, 07:45 on Sunday) and late evenings (from 22:30 until the last train) only from 23 June 1963. During the rest of the day they run non-stop through the station as before. Local residents have been campaigning for more Piccadilly line trains to stop at Turnham Green with trains only stopping in the event of delays to the District line whereby large numbers of passengers are left waiting on the platform or occasionally while scheduled maintenance work is carried out.

However, in December 2013, it was announced that Turnham Green will be made a permanent stop on the Piccadilly line once the line has been upgraded, with work scheduled to commence in 2019 and introduction of the first new train in 2022.”

“William Hogarth and his pug dog Trump”, Chiswick High Road, London W4

From: Brentford & Chiswick Local History Journal 11, 2002:

“A fine statue of the artist William Hogarth (1697-1764), with his pug dog at his feet, was unveiled in October 2001. It stands in a newly landscaped area outside Barclays Bank, opposite the junction of Turnham Green Terrace with Chiswick High Road. An appeal committee, working under the wing of the Chiswick Traders’ Association, commissioned the sculpture which is the work of Jim Mathieson of Hanwell. Following their success in raising the £50,000 needed for the figure of the artist, the committee decided to commission a pug dog, of which Hogarth had several, and set to work to raise a further £10,000.

The project has provided a Millennium landmark for Chiswick. It made use of the Edwardian railings which formerly surrounded an underground public lavatory slightly further to the west, which had been removed to make way for car parking. LB Hounslow provided the landscaping, with simple seating, small trees and special lighting. The project proved to be a popular one, judging by the crowd of over 400 which turned up to see the unveiling.

Ian Hislop, a 21st century successor to Hogarth as editor of the satirical magazine, Private Eye, and a knowledgeable Hogarth enthusiast (he officially re-opened Hogarth’s house in 1997 after its refurbishment for the tercentenary) performed the ceremony. He was assisted by Leaha James, a pupil at William Hogarth primary school who unveiled the pug dog at Hogarth’s heels. And to everyone’s delight, David Hockney, who had been patron of the appeal, was able to be there and was invited by Ian Hislop to assist him.”